This week in history . . .
This week in 1789, marked two milestones in American history. On the 24th, the Supreme Court was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 per Article 3 of the U.S. Constitution. On September 25, Congress passed twelve amendments to the constitution, ten of which were ratified by the states and became the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution in 1791.
The Emancipation Proclamation was announced to the public on September 22, 1862, stating that enslaved people in areas still in rebellion 100 days later would be free. On January 1, 1963, Lincoln declared "that all persons held as slaves [within rebel states] are, and henceforward shall be free." As the Proclamation was only a presidential order, Lincoln supported the 13th Amendment eliminating slavery in the United States.
Nearly a century later, and three years after the Supreme Court called racial segregation in schools unconstitutional, nine black students attended their first full day of classes at Little Rock Central High School. Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus had fought the school's integration using the Arkansas National Guard and local police to block the students since the opening of school earlier in September. On September 24, 1957, President Eisenhower federalized the Arkansas National Guard and sent federal troops to the school to protect the black students as they entered school the next day. Governor Faubus continued to fight the integration of Little Rock schools, and it would be 1972 before all grades in the Little Rock school system were integrated.
Milestones . . .
~~ 1960 September 26. The first televised presidential debates aired when John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon faced the cameras in a Chicago studio.
~~ 1965 September 25. The Kansas City Athletics started 59-year-old Satchel Paige, a veteran of the Negro Leagues, to pitch three innings against the Boston Red Sox.
Remembrances . . .
~~ 1776 September 22. Twenty-one years old and convicted by the British for spying, Nathan Hale is executed, with legend attributing his final words: "I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country."
~~ 1820 September 26. Daniel Boone, 86 years old, dies at his son's home near present-day Defiance, Missouri.
~~ 1945 September 26. Lt. Col. Peter Dewey is killed in Saigon during the post-World War II resettlement efforts in Indochina, that would become the Vietnam War, and cost the lives of nearly 59,000 Americans.
And finally, on September 22, 1994, "Friends" began its 10-season run on television with the final episode on May 6, 2004, drawing more than 50 million viewers.
(Images: Supreme Court, https://www.supremecourt.gov/images/banners/HomePage2.jpg. Bill of Rights, https://www.uscourts.gov/news/2019/12/12/now-cherished-bill-rights-spent-century-obscurity. Emancipation Proclamation, L. Lipman, Milwaukee, Wis. , ca. 1864, https://www.loc.gov/item/2003671404/. Little Rock Nine, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Little_Rock_Desegregation_1957.jpg. Satchal Paige, Acme Newspictures, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Satchel_Paige.jpg.